How do you ask these questions in Japanese...
What do you do?
What kind of work do you do?
Relevant cultural tips will be also appreciated.
I'm not sure if there are more formal or polite ways to ask, but I would usually use something like:
- お仕事は？／お仕事は何ですか？ - The first one is definitely a little more laid back. I'd use this if you're already in a longer conversation with someone and you're both talking casually. Otherwise, the longer second option would probably be better.
- どんな仕事をしていますか？ - These both will elicit the same response, though, and feel like #1 might be the better option. A native speaker might have more examples that fit the English situation better though.
Hope that helps!