Accounting Terms in Mandarin
I can look this information up online, and I've done so many times. However, I have the gut feeling there are inconsistencies due to multiple possible translations, differences in how the Chinese view finances, etc.
For example, when I look up "fixed costs" or "overhead", I get a translation that literally translates to "management fees". However, "fixed costs" don't just take into account management. There is rent, marketing, legal fees, etc. that I don't consider "management".
So, here's a very basic map of terms that I'm interested in being translated. Can someone shed some light on:
Revenue / Net Sales
- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)
= Gross Profit
- Overhead Expenses
= Operating Profit
- Taxes / Interest
= Net Profit
Gross Profit / Revenue = Gross Margin.
Net Profit / Revenue = Profit Margin.
Markup = (Sale Price - Cost of Good Sold ) / Cost of Good Sold
Other potential considerations:
Is there some ambiguity? Do the Chinese agree on an accounting standard or is there significant variation? Do the Chinese potentially confuse certain terms?
I also feel that there are often multiple translations for a certain term, so if these can be stated as well as a description of their differences and which ones are more common - these would be appreciated.
If you only have time to translate one term, I'd still appreciate that a lot too!
First of all, I know almost nothing about accounting, so I just check these out on the internet. and these are for reference only.
- Revenue 收入
- Net Sales 净销售额
- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) 已售商品成本 or 主营业务成本 or 销售成本
- Gross Profit 毛利润 or 毛利
- Overhead Expenses 间接费用 or 经营费用
- Operating Profit 营业利润
- Taxes 税 or 税款
- Interest 利息
- Net Profit 净利润 or 净利
- Gross Margin 毛利率
- Markup 利润幅度
- Sale Price 售价
When I look up "fixed costs" or "overhead", I get a translation that literally translates to "management fees". However, "fixed costs" don't just take into account management. There is rent, marketing, legal fees, etc. that I don't consider "management".In my opinion, it's more like liberal translation. The Chinese phrase always get a lot meaning. 管理费用 can include rent, legal fees, salary, etc (I guess), except Direct Costs.